President Magufuli was quoted recently at a public rally in Tanzania as saying:
"In my administration, as long as I am president ... no pregnant student will be allowed to return to school. We cannot allow this immoral behaviour to permeate our primary and secondary schools ... never.”
"After calculating some few mathematics she’d be asking the teacher in the classroom ‘let me go out and breastfeed my crying baby’... After getting pregnant, you are done!”
“If we were to allow the girls back to school, one day we would find all girls in Standard One going home to nurse their babies.”
These worrying statements were backed up yesterday by Tanzania’s Home Affairs minister, Mr Mwigulu Nchemba, who warned civil society organisations advocating for teenage mother’s education that they would be deregistered if they continue campaigning on this issue.
Tanzania's ban on pregnant girls attending state primary and secondary schools dates back to 1961, and according to a 2013 report by the ++Center for Reproductive Rights (CRR),++ more than 55,000 schoolgirls have been expelled from school over the last decade for being pregnant.
Although some more affluent families have been able to pay for their daughters to attend private school, the majority of girls have had to miss out on the rest of their education.
Civil society organizations including Equality Now argue that denying girls who have become mothers access to education is a violation of their human rights, and is a form of discrimination as highlighted by the United Nations Human Rights Council in their recent report: ++Realization of the equal enjoyment of the right to education by every girl++.
The right to education plays a pivotal role in development, both of the individual and society. It opens up access to information on protection, opportunities and other fundamental rights, and is highly linked to personal, social and economic empowerment.
Sexual violence against adolescent girls
Barring teenage mothers from education not only perpetuates discriminatory gender norms, but it is also an indication of government failures to address the root cause of widespread sexual violence against adolescent girls.
Efforts to eradicate violence against girls and women in Tanzania needs to be increased, and laws against perpetrators of sexual violence have to be better enforced. More also needs to be done to alleviate the stigma and discrimination endured by pregnant girls and survivors of sexual violence and exploitation.
Girls’ human rights to health, life and right to equality and non-discrimination must be guaranteed by providing them with quality education, and to sexual and reproductive health care information, services and goods.
The Tanzanian government and President John Magufuli should ensure that all school settings across the country are free from sexual violence and that holistic programming is in place to prevent and address sexual violence as outlined in the ++Global Guidance to Address School Related Gender Based Violence++.
Education is key
Education is key to eliminating poverty and denial of education is counter to any proposals aiming to improve society. Around one in four females in Tanzania are illiterate and the country’s ++illiteracy rate rose by one per cent to reach 23 per cent in 2015++. By only punishing pregnant girls and denying them their education, the government is penalizing them on the basis of gender and is curtailing their futures so they are likely to remain trapped in a cycle of poverty.
Providing access to child care for girls who become mothers should be a state priority, as should the provision of other vital support services so that they can return to school. Of particular urgency is guaranteeing girls’ right to access post rape health care information and services including those necessary to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as ante-natal care.
President Magufuli comments go against the Tanzanian government's own policy and contradict the 2015 General Election campaign pledge of the ruling political party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi. They are also directly at odds with the commitments that Tanzania has already made by signing up to various regional and international pieces of legislation.
These include the ++Maputo Protocol++, which guarantees the rights of women and girls in Africa including their rights to education and training, and the ++Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women++ (CEDAW), and ++The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child++, which clearly states that girls who get pregnant should be given an opportunity to access education.
People wanting to join the conversation on social media can use the hashtags ++#ArudiShule++ and ++#StopMagufuli++. Many are urging President Magufuli to withdraw his damaging statements, lift the ban on teenage mothers accessing schools, and take all necessary steps to ensure the well-being and future prospects of all girls across Tanzania.
About Christa Stewart, Equality Now Program Manager:
Christa Stewart a lawyer experienced in working with adolescent girls and on issues of human trafficking, sexual assault and immigration. Prior to joining Equality Now, Christa worked for the New York State Bureau of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance (OTDA). Before OTDA, she served as Director of Legal Services at The Door, a youth development agency, and also worked at Safe Horizon managing sexual assault, child advocacy and human trafficking programs.
Christa has lectured at numerous universities and educational institutions on immigration, women and human rights issues. Her articles have appeared in the Women’s Law Journal and the International Legal Practitioner, and she contributed chapters to the Lawyer's Manual on Human Trafficking and the International Adoptions Source Book. Christa has served on the Board of Trustees of WomenRising, a domestic violence organization, and the Board of Queens Legal Services. She is currently on the Board of the Global Workers Justice Alliance.
About Equality Now:
Equality Now is an international human rights organization that works to protect and promote the rights of women and girls around the world by combining grassroots activism with international, regional and national legal advocacy. An international network of lawyers, activists, and supporters achieve legal and systemic change by holding governments responsible for enacting and enforcing laws and policies that end legal inequality, sex trafficking, sexual violence, and harmful practices such as child marriage and female genital mutilation.
Equality Now is dedicated to creating a more just world where women and girls have equal rights under the law and full enjoyment of those rights. For details of current campaigns, please visit ++www.equalitynow.org++.